Monday, August 21, 2017

Book Review: Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men


Ever since I was a kid I have had a fascination with space, rockets, and Marvin the Martian. I have always been interested in knowing whether life could exist somewhere else in the universe, and if so, what kind of life. As a kid, UFOs caught my attention and fascination. I remember watching "Unsolved Mysteries," when they were presenting a story about someone's encounter with an unidentified flying object, on several occasions with my parents. Over the years, my interest in UFOs and aliens has gone down quite a bit, but it always been in the back of my mind as I see scientific stories about discoveries of extraterrestrial planets and research on the origin of life. I recalled reading an interesting book several years ago that addressed the topic of UFOs, and I decided to pick it up again to give it a proper review on my blog. The book is "Lights In The Sky and Little Green Men: A Rational Christian Look at UFOs and Extraterrestrials" by Dr. Hugh Ross, Dr. Mark Clark, and Kenneth Samples (DVD available as well). This review will be the usual chapter-by-chapter summary and conclude with my recommendations. As always, this review leaves out a lot of information necessary to truly evaluate the authors' arguments, so if you are intrigued by the contents here, please do pick up a copy to read and analyze for yourself.

Chapter 1: The UFO Craze (Kenneth Samples)

Kenneth Samples begins the book with a short history lesson on how the UFO craze in America began. He discussed the WWII pilots' experiences that seemed to kick it off and the government investigation (and findings) that seem to have fueled the flames of public interest. Along with the general public fascination with unidentified flying objects, he explains that UFOs have many others investigating them. Natural scientists, U.S. government officials, professional ufologists, social scientists, popular UFO enthusiasts, UFO debunkers, new agers, UFO cult members, and Christian apologists and theologians all have varying interests in this subject. Consequently, if you fall into any of those categories or are just curious, the investigation and discussion in this book will be of interest to you.

Quote from "Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men" by Hugh Ross, Mark Clark, and Kenneth (Ken) Samples- "Some evangelical and Christian theologians are interested in the question of God's relationship to other worlds (exotheology). If intelligent beings exist elsewhere in the universe, what are the implications of this for Christian truth claims? In addition, Christian apolostists are interested in UFO religion as a challenge to the truth claims of Christianity. While evangelical Christians debate the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence, most Christian apologists view UFO phenomena as counterfeit religious phenomena with direct connection to occultism and probably also the demonic realm."  (Aliens, UFOs, New Age, Occult, Science)

Chapter 2: Types of UFOs (Kenneth Samples)

In order for a systematic study of UFO reports to be conducted, there must be a system by which they can be categorized. Many people are familiar with the term "close encounter of the third kind." This represents one of the categories that researchers have used. The others include distant sightings (night time, day time, and radar detection) and close encounters of the first through fifth kind (each increasing with the level of environmental effects and observer interaction with the beings involved in the sighting). Numerous reports of sightings are recorded every year, but the vast majority are found to have natural explanations. While there are those who believe that every UFO sighting will eventually have a natural explanation, there remains a small percentage (1%-5%) of reports that do not lend themselves to naturalistic explanations. These are the reports that are the subjects of much investigation and debate. Currently, two explanations have been offered for these: the extraterrestrial hypothesis and the interdimensional hypothesis. The first holds that UFOs are the result of intelligent, extraterrestrial but naturally existing beings, and the second holds that UFOs are the result of beings that exist beyond this physical universe but can interact with it. The authors of this book believe that the interdimensional hypothesis best explains the evidence. To build their case, they begin by offering three scientific arguments against the extraterrestrial hypothesis. Each of those three are the subjects of the next three chapters.

Chapter 3: Life on Other Planets (Dr. Hugh Ross)

Astrophysicsit Dr. Hugh Ross begins the investigation into the possibility that UFOs are the result of extraterrestrials (ET) by observing that any ET must have a home somewhere in the universe. Scientitific studies of star and planet formation predict that there may be as many as 1020 planets in the universe. However, while that number is quite high and looks promising, the number of planets that may serve as possible homes are being reduced dramatically every year due to research and discoveries about the requirements of advanced life. Dr. Ross examines just a few of these features in this chapter and concludes that using the rest of the discoveries available at the time of the book's publishing (2002) the number was reduced effectively to zero. In fact, the chance of a planet naturally occurring that could be a home for E.T. is only one in 10^174. Just to provide some perspective for that probability, it is nearly one hundred orders of magnitude more reasonable to believe that you will be killed by a sudden reversal of the second law of thermodynamics in the next second. Keep in mind that this was based on the discoveries available fifteen years ago. The discoveries since then make the probabilities even more remote. Dr. Ross has since written two books that update the research:

Scientific discoveries have established that there is simply no place in the universe where life can be sustained beyond our planet. While this is enough to undermine the extraterrestrial hypothesis on its own, Dr. Ross presents two more arguments from the physical sciences against necessary features of the ET hypothesis.

Chapter 4: Evolution's Probabilities (Dr. Hugh Ross)

The extraterrestrial hypothesis is necessarily dependent upon the idea that life can be created naturalistically, at least twice (humans and ET). The second argument is based upon the origin of life from non-life. While Dr. Ross, along with biochemist Fazale Rana, present numerous pieces of evidence against a naturalistic origin of life in their book "Origins of Life," he presents just a couple of the most devastating in this chapter. The first being that the "handedness" of biomolecules (often called chirality). A specific combination of right- and left-handed molecules must exist in order for the chemistry of life to have even the possibility of working; however, despite numerous attempts, scientists have not been able to produce the correct combination through strictly natural processes.

The second piece of evidence against a naturalistic origin of life is the "oxygen-ultraviolet paradox." Origin-of-life researchers have discovered that the presence of oxygen prevents the chemical reactions necessary for life; however, the absence of oxygen guarantees exposure of ultraviolet radiation that kills all results of the same chemical reactions. With or without oxygen, prebiotic chemistry cannot take place. Neither of these problems can be overcome simply by adding time to the equation. It does not matter if the universe is fourteen seconds old, fourteen billion years old, or fourteen trillion years old, physical life simply is not in the cards for this universe even once (without an agent behind it), much less a second or third time. So, not only has scientific study shown that ET has no place to live, it has shown that ET does not even have a place to begin.

Quote from "Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men" by Hugh Ross, Mark Clark, and Kenneth (Ken) Samples- "Wherever life arises, by far the biggest problem is the unfeasibility of generating, without supernatural input, the requried degree of complexity. A wide gulf separates an aqueous solution of a few amino acids from the simplest living cell...If one were to take the simplest living cell and break every chemical bond within it, the odds that the cell would reassemble under ideal natural conditions would be one chance in a number so big that to write it out would take thousands of pages. In lights of such a number, the time scale issue becomes completely irrelevant. What does it matter if every possible planet in the universe has been around for 10 seconds, 10 billion years, or 10 quadrillion years? Even if all the matter in the visible universe were converted into the building blocks of life, and even if, by some unknown means, assembly of these building blocks proceeded randomly once every microsecond for the entire age of the universe, the odds would improve by a barely perceptible fraction." (Aliens, UFOs, New Age, Occult, Science)

Chapter 5: Interstellar Space Travel (Dr. Hugh Ross)

Along with the necessities of a naturalistic origin and a sustaining home for the extraterrestrial hypothesis to be possible, it also requires that any ET be able to travel through interstellar space to visit earth. Dr. Ross presents his scientific case against ET embarking on such space travel. Numerous risks make alien space travel either infeasible or impossible. The first series of risks come from traveling through interstellar space. The shear distance is the most obvious. To traverse these distances in a relatively short amount of time, space craft must reach extremely high velocities. However, such velocities increase damage by space debris and radiation to both crafts and passengers. To prevent fatality, speeds must be limited to 1% of the speed of light. To make the journey a mere 230 light years would take roughly 23,000 years. Because of the limits of life spans (set by the laws of physics), the size of the craft, the population of passengers, and numerous multiple generations of passengers all work together to practically ensure either extinction of the passengers and/or failure of the mission through health, psychological, and political disasters.

If our universe were to be able to produce another intelligent life form (presumably more intelligent than humans), they would no doubt be aware of these risks and limits and would not send members of their own species, but send machines to do the work of investigation. However, even those, though sustainable for longer periods, still are subject to the limitations of space travel. Reason would dictate that any alien race beyond our solar system or galaxy would just stay within the easily accessible distances of their own solar system. So, the scientific evidence is, once again, stacked against a necessary component of the ET hypothesis.

Chapter 6: RUFOs-- The Unexplained UFOs (Dr. Hugh Ross)

With the failure of the ET hypothesis based upon three scientifically established lines of evidence, it seems that all UFO reports would eventually be able to be associated with some kind of natural or human phenomenon. However, depending on who you ask, the amount of UFO reports that resist such a natural explanation can be as high as nearly one quarter but never as low as zero. Of these reports, several physical effects upon the environment, observers, and machines in the vicinity of the sightings have been documented and confirmed. According to the reports these objects consistently are not limited by the laws of physics with regards to velocity, acceleration, mass, electromagnetism, and others. The effects reported as being caused by the objects also are not consistent with the laws of physics. Some effects expected from the appearance of certain natural features manifest whiles others (necessitated by the laws of physics that govern the features) do not; intensities of the effects are also not consistent with governance by the laws of physics.

Even though UFOs seem to be real, they do not seem to be of physical origin, and the evidence seems to even argue that they are of non-physical origin (evidence to be detailed in later chapters). In the late 70s, after being asked to conduct studies on UFO causes, NASA issued a statement denying any interest in doing so because their purpose was to investigate phenomena governed by natural laws. Because of this, many people believe that NASA and the rest of the government have been involved in some kind of conspiracy to cover up what they know about UFOs.

Chapter 7: Government Cover-Ups (Dr. Mark Clark)

When people think of aliens and a government cover-up, three things usually comes to mind: Roswell, Project Blue Book, and Area 51. Each of these are surrounded by controversy and conspiracy theories. Mark Clark takes the reader through each one. The 1947 event at Roswell, New Mexico has spawn numerous myths, conspiracy theories, and sci-fi movies, and for understandable reasons. Government officials provided conflicting explanations for the event. While the current story is that what "crashed" was debris from a failed experiment, the initial one was that it was a UFO. The later denial leads people to believe there is a cover-up. Clark explains that different levels of classified information access is likely to blame for the different stories and that such limitation is a more logical and natural explanation than a conspiracy. Project Blue Book shortly followed the Roswell crash. UFO reports continued to come in. The Air Force was the newest branch of the United States armed forces, tasked with protecting America by air and eager to investigate any possible threats from the air, especially since tensions were on the rise with the Soviet Union. The Central Intelligence Agency got involved with the project but wanted to keep it quiet. After several years, a conclusion was reached that the sightings were of no threat and that there was no real reason for the Air Force to continue research. Clark explains how this project was run by bureaucratic politics and that is likely what caused many of the features that seemed suspicious; he concludes, again, that conspiracy is not the more logical explanation. Area 51 is an unofficially recognized base where the United States military tests new technology. Simply put, the testing of these technologies are not completely hidden and result in UFO reports.

The secrecy (including governmental denial of existence) around Area 51 makes people think that it is where UFOs and aliens are kept. Again Clark explains why he does not believe this is evidence of a governmental conspiracy. In this chapter he merely provides alternative explanations of the evidence. However, how do we know that conspiracy truly is not the best explanation?

Chapter 8: Government Conspiracies (Dr. Mark Clark)

Clark begins by explaining that a conspiracy theory proposes that a group of people is secretly working behind the scenes for personal gain and/or to harm others.  Conspiracy theorists rarely produce evidence because they believe that a lack of evidence demonstrates how well the secret is being kept. Because they generally eschew evidence, they are not usually open to alternative explanations or anything that might show that they have misinterpreted the facts. Psychologists usually distinguish between two types of thinking: theory-based and data-based. The former begins with presuppositions and intentionally filters everything through them. This results in the limiting of the evidence base (often to nothing) to support their theory. This top-down approach to thinking in generally takes fewer valuable resources (energy and time required by deep critical thinking), but it also works well in day-to-day activities, but often leads to false beliefs. Data-based thinking is a bottom-up approach that begins with evidence and develops a theory that is consistent with all the data available. This is much more resource-intensive, is burdensome in day-to-day activities (because reevaluating constantly is not always necessary), but, if done properly, leads to true beliefs. Conspiracy theories are usually the result of theory-based thinking.

Clark explains too that it is not just the way someone thinks that has led to conspiracy theories about UFOs. The ways the US governmental system is created is a constant struggle for power among three branches- which is based necessarily on the idea that individuals and even whole groups cannot be trusted, thus the need checks and balances by two other parties. Further, the US government has shown itself to be untrustworthy in several situations. However, despite the issues with the government, when the whole of the evidence is taken into account, a conspiracy theory simply is not reasonable. The fact that conspiracy theories are usually due to theory-based thinking, which is quite resistant to change, explains why, despite all the evidence to the contrary, the theories are so popular in America today.

Quote from "Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men" by Hugh Ross, Mark Clark, and Kenneth (Ken) Samples- "Conspiracy theorists never seriously consider the possibility that they may have misinterpreted the facts. Their assumptions rule their judgment. And so their theories do not allow for the sort of self-correction that the scientific method permits….Three criteria [are noted] for judging when people are engaging in irrational cognitive consistency-- that is, when they are trying to maintain their cognitive balance in an irrational way. People are maintaining cognitive consistency irrationally when they (1) fail to take into consideration a large amount of information that contradicts their views; (2) fail to notice obviously important events that warrant attention; and (3) fail to look for evidence that is clearly available. UFO conspiracy theorists generally meet at least one or two of these criteria." (Aliens, UFOs, New Age, Occult, Science)

Chapter 9: Nature and Supernature (Dr. Hugh Ross)

Without the ability of the universe to sustain another advanced physical lifeform, UFOs' having a physical explanation has been removed from the table. This means that there is nothing for the US government to hide. However, there still exists reports of UFOs that defy physical explanation (rUFOs). As described in previous chapters, these reports are credible so, there must be an explanation for these phenomena. Before the authors get to the full hypothesis they will defend, a scientific foundation must be set that gives reason to even consider it as a possibility.

With Einstein's theories of relativity and big bang cosmology, it has been widely accepted that the universe had a beginning. If the universe has a beginning, then it must have a beginner or creator. Since no creator can consist of what is being created, this means that the creator of the universe must be outside the universe, spaceless and timeless- attributes of the God of the Bible. There have been many valiant attempts by scientists over the decades to over-through relativity and big bang cosmology due to its obvious theological implications; however, all attempts have failed and both stand as scientifically verified. Further confirming this positive identity of the Creator, though, are the numerous finely tuned attributes of the universe and the history of our planet for life. The fact that so many features have been finely tuned and the history of our planet so intricately orchestrated point powerfully towards a Designer with a purpose. Purposeful creation can only be accomplished by a personal Creator. So, it is logical to conclude that the supernatural exists, and that the God of the Bible is the responsible party for this universe's existence.

Chapter 10: The Interdimensional Hypothesis (Dr. Hugh Ross)

Among all the "holy books" of the world (including the UFO cults), the Bible contains the most accurate descriptions of the physical universe in which we live. With the scientific evidence put forth for the Bible's accurate statement that "God created the heavens and the earth" (Genesis 1:1; among others), it is most reasonable to look within its pages to find explanations for other miracles (phenomena that defy natural explanation). That is where the interdimensional hypothesis to explain RUFOs comes in. The Bible and modern "string theory" (proposed to unite relativity and quantum mechanics) affirm the existence of a realm of reality independent but accessible to this universe. The Bible adds a detail of interest to those investigating RUFOs: it affirms that intelligent beings were created in this independent realm, and a large minority of them chose to reject their Creator and actively work against His purposes (called "fallen angels" or "demons").

Consequently, this hypothesis positively affirms the reality of RUFOs (though, not physical), affirms that they are of an intelligent source, and provides a positive way to scientifically test the identity of their source. If a RUFO is from one of these "fallen angels," then we can expect that their messages and actions will be against the stated purposes of God recorded in the Bible. If they are from one of the "ministering spirits" (angels who are still in God's service), on the other hand, then their message and actions will promote God's purposes. With this clear way to move forward in the investigation, the authors take a closer look at some of the RUFO reports to put the source to the scientific test.

Chapter 11: A Closer Look at RUFOs (Dr. Hugh Ross)

In order to discover the source of RUFOs, the Dr. Ross examine ten characteristics that are generally common among the reports and draw a conclusion based upon the known possible sources that would fit those characteristics. They are:
  1. RUFOs favor certain times night and locations 
  2. RUFOs reflect current (at time of report) technology or science fiction
  3. RUFO reports seem to span human history
  4. RUFOs exploit the scientific (il)literacy of the witnesses
  5. RUFOs often revisit the same witnesses and locations
  6. RUFOs visit a select few people compared to what would be expected based upon availability to witness
  7. RUFOs seem to be "alive" to the witnesses
  8. RUFOs cause long-lasting (even lifetime) disturbing emotions 
  9. RUFOs cause physical and psychological damage to the witnesses 
  10. RUFOs deceive their humans contacts
Generally speaking, the false information relied upon by RUFOs, the false information communicated, the and physical harm are not consistent with the God of the Bible nor His angels. Rather these characteristics (especially when examined more closely) reflect evil intentions, the intentions of the fallen angels described in the Bible to also exist. Now, this is a general conclusion; however, this hypothesis can be put to a more stringent test. Does the hypothesis of demonic activity follow from specifics of the different kind of encounters? Ken Samples examines both abductees and contactees in the next two chapters.

Chapter 12: Abductees (Kenneth Samples)

Samples begins with a short history of alien abduction reports. It appears to be a recent phenomenon beginning in the 1960s with a report that caught the public's attention in intrigue. Since then reports of abductions have been numerous. Compiling the reports has allowed ufologists to identify a general pattern for the abduction experience: capture, examination, conference, ship tour, otherworldly journey, theophany, return and aftermath. While not all reports contain every feature, this is generally the case. Captures usually take place in a vehicle or in the home of the abductee late at night. Once aboard the ship, the abductee is subjected to an invasive physical examination. The abductee will have some kind of meeting with the aliens, and the aliens will give a tour of the ship. Abductees often report a following trip to another world and/or some kind of spiritual experience and communication (theophany). After that, the abductee is returned to the place of the abduction, a few hours after the initial abduction. The experience results in psychological, behavioral, and philosophical changes in the individual. It is important to note that while no two experiences or set of changes are exactly the same, what they all do hold in common is the inconsistency with the God of the Bible, particularly the changes in philosophical views: they stand in direct contradiction to the claims of Christianity.

Several hypotheses have been proposed by various ufologists to explain these abduction experiences. Some hypotheses are mutually exclusive, while others may be combined together for greater explanatory power. Samples describes the current nine options: brain effect, hoax/fantasy, dormant memory of birth, dream/hallucination, psychological cover for abuse, transformation of human consciousness, extraterrestrial experimentation, contact with extradimensional beings, and demonic implantation of memories. The first five are naturalistic explanations that deny aliens are real in any sense; the next two are naturalistic but rely upon aliens being extraterrestrial, and the last two appeal to the supernatural for the explanation. At this point Samples does not put the various hypotheses to the test as more about RUFO reports needs to be considered.

Chapter 13: Contactees (Kenneth Samples)

Contactees take the abduction encounter to the next level. Contactees claim to have repeated, intentional contact with aliens. While the exact history is debated among scholars, they do agree that it did originate and continues within an occultic context. Contactees usually report that their contacts take place during seances, trances, astral projection and/or through the use of channeling. Different from the majority of abductee reports, contactees describe the experiences in a positive light and the aliens as having good intentions. In these encounters, the aliens claim to be from a distant locale in the universe or a higher dimension. They present themselves as technologically, morally, and spiritually superior to humanity and communicate information that is to be passed on to the rest of the human race through the contactee in order to prevent the species' impending doom. The information is metaphysical, moral, and theological in nature, similar to that of the information communicated in abductee reports. Because of the nature of the information and the advanced status claimed by and ascribed to the aliens, religions have spawned from these types of continued encounters. Samples dedicates a whole chapter to this further discussion.

Chapter 14: UFO Cults (Kenneth Samples)

Samples digs a bit deeper into four of the most popular UFO cults: The Aetherius Society, The Unarius Academy of Science, Heaven's Gate, and The Raelian Movement. While all of them are unique in many respects, they also hold some beliefs in common. Obviously, they believe that UFOs and aliens are real. They are all led either a single or group of contactees, who channel the aliens to provide revelations to their followers that will provide humanity with salvation of some sort. Each cult is unique in the aliens doing the communication, the location of these aliens, the specific mode of salvation, the practices, and other revelations. Before founding their UFO cults, each of the founders held to eastern/new age philosophies and regularly used occultic communication practices. It was those practices that led to the initial contact with the aliens. Most of the leaders are (were) quite charismatic but developed a relatively small following. Of these cults the Heaven's Gate cult is the most well known because of the mass suicide of its members in 1997.

Having examined abductions, contactees, and the UFO cults, Samples puts forth a series of tests that the various views must pass in order to be considered a viable option for explanation. These tests include:
  • Coherence test- the view must not contain any views that contradict other views 
  • Mean test- the view must contain a balance of complexity and simplicity 
  • Explanatory power test- the view must have be able to answer a wide range of questions about reality
  • Correspondence test- the view must match what is observed in the natural world
  • Verification test- the view makes claims that can be tested to be either true or false
  • Pragmatic test- the view must be livable in everyday life
  • Existential test- the view must give meaning, purpose, and significance to the individual
  • Competition test- the view must be able to respond to reasonable challenges from competing views
  • Predictive test- the view must accurately anticipate what researchers will discover about reality

Since the Christian worldview has been established in previous chapters (and other books referenced in this review) as having met the above tests, it makes sense to not only evaluate the various views of RUFOs, abductions, contactees, and UFO cults using science (see previous chapters) but it also makes sense to evaluate against the claims of the Bible. That is the goal of the next chapter.

Chapter 15: The Bible and UFOs (Dr. Hugh Ross and Kenneth Samples)

Samples and Ross begin the biblical evaluation by pointing to numerous passages in the Bible that describe visions of other worldviews and communications with angels (ministering spirits). These communications are described as being sourced from outside this world and they accomplish bringing glory to the God of Christianity and establish a stronger trust in the truth of the rest of the Scriptural claims. The angels are the counterparts of demons. Both are members of the interdimensional realm, but angels work in God's service, and demons work in direct contradiction to Him. The phenomena described in the previous chapters are very similar in ways that would lead one to think they both originated from outside this world; however, they are so different as to demand the conclusion that their purposes are in direct contradiction to one another.

The UFO cults and the communications received during abductions and contacts deny, in one way or the other, the deity or humanity of Jesus Christ and that salvation comes through Him alone. Such denial will ultimately result in separation from the all-loving Creator and Savior for eternity- hardly a benevolent intention. The authors conclude that the phenomena described in the previous chapters are real and are to be attributed to demons- the interdimensional beings, whose malevolent goal it is to steer everyone they possibly can, in any way that they can, away from their Creator and Savior, Jesus Christ. The authors grant that not all scholars agree with their conclusion, but an agreement is found among Christian scholars, secular scholars, and scientists: RUFO experiences are tied to occultic activity, which has been shown to have numerous negative effects on humans (even if only physical) and recommend that it should be avoided at all costs.

Chapter 16: Summary (Dr. Hugh Ross)

Dr. Ross provides a short summary of the contents of the book and concludes with a pastoral appeal to those who have been afflicted with RUFOs: you can find relief from such necessarily malevolent activity and escape the inevitable consequences of a deep occultic connection. But it can only be found in accepting the biblical teaching that such interaction is wrong, intentionally denying yourself such further involvement, and accepting the salvation offered by the historical death and bodily Resurrection of our incarnate Creator and Savior, Jesus Christ.

Reviewer's Thoughts

I was quite impressed with how the authors of "Lights in the Sky, and Little Green Men" systematically approached the topic of UFOs. They drew upon the disciplines of science, history, philosophy, and theology and applied logical tests to their observations to come to their compelling conclusions. Even though the presentation was very academic, it was presented in a way that was easily read and easily understood. The book kept me intrigued from the beginning to the end. I do have two recommendations: the first is for those interested in UFO phenomena, and the second is for the Christian.

I highly recommend this book for anyone who has ever considered UFO phenomena. It is important that such phenomena have an explanation in a worldview, and because of the culture's fascination with aliens, the occult, and new age philosophies, it is important that the Christian be able to have an intellectual discussion on the topic and "provide a reason for the hope that they have" when many people think that such phenomena provide evidence against the Christian worldview. I also highly recommend this book for anyone who is just curious about the possibility of extraterrestrial life. The chapters that deal with the astrophysics are indispensable in coming to a logical conclusion on this possibility. It was a great book that I had a difficult time putting down, and I think that you will enjoy it as much as I did.

I do have a specific recommendation for the Christian case-maker . While it may be obvious that this book addresses the design in the universe (teleological argument) and does provide some good information for building the case for the earth being designed for a purpose, it may not be so obvious of this book's other apologetic connections. I specifically want to draw your attention to the chapters by Dr. Mark Clark. One of the great challenges to the historicity of the Resurrection is the idea that the disciples concocted a conspiracy. Clark's discussion of conspiracies (chapter 8), in general, will help equip you to address this challenge. Included in the general discussion of conspiracies is an explanation of what it takes to convince someone of the truth of something else (if they even can be convinced otherwise). This portion has great implication in every discussion about the truth of different worldviews. So, while you read the book for the obvious purpose of UFOs, keep your eyes out for other applications in your presentation of evidence for the truth of the Christian worldview.

More books to consider on the topic of life's origins:

Lists of Recommended Books For Science and Christianity

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